PARASITE

EXTERNAL PARASİTES

The most important external parasites for piegeons are lice, fleas and mites. They weakens and distrubs the animals.


Lice
Biting lice belong to the group of ecto-parasites, which are parasites that live outside the bird. These flightless insects affect the feathered areas of their host and feed on the feathers. There are several different varieties of biting lice that all have their own preference in bird species. All bird lice have nearly the same lifestyle, which is the reason for them being summarized in this chapter.


Due to their size, which is up to three millimetres, bird lice can be seen with the naked eye. They are often dark-coloured, have six legs and an oblong, slim trunk. They are light-shy and crawl into the plumage when facing direct light, for example by gently moving the primary wing feathers apart. The picture on the right side shows how a bird louse looks like when enlarged four times.
Since lice live permanently in the plumage of birds, they reproduce there as well. They stick their eggs in columns onto the barbs. Within one to two weeks, the eggs hatch to produce larvae, which turn into adult lice within five weeks.


Fleas
The also disturb the pterygota-metabola. If they reproduce, you have to struggle with them.

Tick
Soft tick approximately 4mm long.

The mouthparts are ventrally located and are covered by the front margin of the body so they are not visible from above.

Bodies lack a scutum (a hard thickened plate) and the skin appears wrinkled and leather–like.
The females feed at intervals, increasing their body weight by up to three times, then laying globular, dark brown shiny eggs in batches of 20 – 50.

The larvae feed on the hosts for six to eleven days although the nymphs and adults only feed for up to 12 hours.

Pigeons are the principal host but other bird species may also be fed upon. Humans may also be bitten.

The ticks feed at night and hide by day.

They are commonly found in attics and rooms adjacent to areas where pigeons roost.

Heavy infestations of these ticks can cause the death of the host pigeon.


Mites
Bird mites are very tiny, flattened parasitic arthropods in the order Acari. They belong to two closely related genera in two families; Dermanyssus species in Dermanyssidae (Fig. 1), and Ornithonyssus species in Macronyssidae. Bird mites have piercing mouthparts that enable them to take blood meals from their bird hosts. Although the mites will inadvertently bite people, they cannot reproduce without their bird hosts.

Measures to be taken against external parasites
Causes weight loss.

Not feed your birds everywhere. Use a specially prepared feeders.

2) Water containers should be protected in the same way as uncontaminated by feces into.
3) your birds feed and water bowls, so that there should be open to other birds.
4) Frequent and regular intervals, clean room and equipment. suitable for use during cleaning disinfectant drugs. Bleached serves as a good disinfectant. Be careful not to strike is also airy.
5) Moisture in your room. Wet environment for the development of a multi-microbe quite affordable housing and creates a fertile ground eggs of parasites. Sermeyiniz sand bottom of the chamber. Room base of the sand, germs and parasites and development environment provides a good shelter.
6) Your room, into every kind of parasite, insect, insects, etc., in order to prevent the entrance and seal using a suitable wire mesh cage.
7) Make sure that your birds their failure to come into contact with other birds.
8) Get your pigeons under frequent penetration of the general health check. This is likely to be in control of all diseases and external parasites carry the signs Observe see.
9) Room inside the lethal drugs at regular intervals ilaçlayınız interference.
10) Do not take your birds bath several times a week. Stir the waters of Bath parasite preventive and protective drugs.

Internal parasites
In general, a variety of internal parasites in their bodies called pigeons living creatures. Most of these creatures görünemeyecek eye size, microscopic organisms. These creatures may cause serious illness or death may result to our birds. In particular diarrhea and intestinal disorders, including
intestinal perforation and obstructions, intestinal bleeding, flight performance drop, anemia, emaciation and loss of strength, a lot like the problem may be related to internal parasites. The purpose of this paper is to introduce internal parasites, and need to apply measures that can be taken to provide information about treatment methods.

Most Common Internal Parasites of Pigeons
According to the types of internal parasites in pigeons Nematoda, Cestoda and terametoda meet the 3 main groups. Each group in its own form of interference or noise is divided into separate groups based on where in the body. Some of these parasites completely with the other birds, pigeons, pigeons and chickens while others seem to be. Birds in the internal parasites, mainly the stomach gland, (pre-stomach), muscular stomach (gizzard), intestine, small intestine, and are blind.

NEMATODA
Nematoda, thread-shaped long-bodied, sometimes the common name of a large family of worms which may be in the form of overalls. There are hundreds of thousands type. Only vertebrates, the number of parasite species, is estimated to be 80 000.

1 ) ROUNDWORMS
a ) Ascaridia Columbae
b ) Ornithostrongylus Quardriradiatus

2 ) HAİRWORMS
a ) Capillaria Obsignata
b ) Capillaria Coudinflata ( Columbae )
c ) Trichostrongylus tenius
d ) Amidostomum anseris

3 ) STOMACH WALL WORMS
a ) Tetrameres Americana
b ) Dispharynx Nasuta


CESTODA
Body shape is a flat view and small rings fused together. All types of tape way of life, is buried in the wall of the intestine. Tape head the intestinal wall by embedding live here. Which is embedded in the wall of the intestine on the head of the hook and suction cups. These organs are located in the regions, especially in recent intestinal parasites, such as a greater risk of expulsion out of the further developed. Behind the head of the rings has a long part of the body. Parasite grows constantly producing new ring break and is excreted in the meantime the old rings. Intestinal parasites in the body fluid of these nutrients are completely.

1 ) TAPEWORMS
a ) Hymenolepis Columbae
b) Raillietina Cesticulus ( Columbae )

TREMATODA
Interference of this class of so-called butterflies are a lot of interference type. As a ribbon-like structure. In general, the front sides of the strips are separated by the presence of a mouth. With the mouth and the gut is largely fed from the surface of the body. Complete the development of eggs in the uterus of some species. After being out of the eggs of other species in the last host from there pass an intermediate host. As intermediate hosts, worms, snails, insects are used. The larvae become adult the last mansion settle organ flourish. These bodies are usually the intestines, the liver, the bladder may be. A type of waterfowl and birds in chickens egg broken egg moved to channel leads to exclusion.


1 ) FLATWORMS
a )  Echinostoma revolutum

ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN AGAINST INTERNAL PARASITES
Makes diarrhea and vomiting. Leads to weaken.

1) Regular cleaning and disinfection of keel to make a healthy living conditions.
2) Keel and be large enough to fit available space per bird.
3) Salma domestic ventilation is appropriate. By the inhalation of ammonia gas is emitted from a variety of birds bird feces accumulated in respiratory diseases and internal parasites can lead to the body again.
4) yemlenmemesi where birds, bird feces into the special feeders and watering of the use of uncontaminated.
4) Feeding and watering is not open to other birds and animals.
5) keel flies, bugs and other insects and animals can not get into the insulation from the wire cage.
6) Regular and spraying to control external parasites.
7) that we feed our birds are fresh and clean, attention, if possible, tested the reliability of a continuous feed stores to shop.
8) living things can not get any other way inland decoys stored in tightly closed containers.